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Later references to this game are found in France and Spain. The first record of the game in France occurs in  and in Britain during the s and s, but the first rules anywhere appear in Britain in under the name of Vingt-Un.
The first rules were an reprint of the English rules. There is a popular myth that, when Vingt-Un "Twenty-One" was introduced into the United States in the early s - other sources say during the First World War and still others the s - gambling houses offered bonus payouts to stimulate players' interest.
One such bonus was a ten-to-one payout if the player's hand consisted of the ace of spades and a black jack either the jack of clubs or the jack of spades.
This hand was called a "blackjack", and it is claimed that the name stuck to the game even though the ten-to-one bonus was soon withdrawn.
French card historian, Thierry Depaulis has recently debunked this story, showing that the name Blackjack was first given to the game of American Vingt-Un by prospectors during the Klondike Gold Rush —99 , the bonus being the usual Ace and any point card.
Since the term 'blackjack' also refers to the mineral zincblende , which was often associated with gold or silver deposits, he suggests that the mineral name was transferred by prospectors to the top bonus in the game.
He was unable to find any historical evidence for a special bonus for having the combination of an Ace with a black Jack.
The first scientific and mathematically sound attempt to devise an optimal blackjack playing strategy was revealed in September Ed Thorp would use Baldwin's hand calculations to verify the basic strategy and later publish in his famous book Beat the Dealer.
Players are each dealt two cards, face up or down depending on the casino and the table. In the U. In most other countries, the dealer only receives one card face up.
The value of cards two through ten is their pip value 2 through Face cards Jack, Queen, and King are all worth ten.
Aces can be worth one or eleven. A hand's value is the sum of the card values. Players are allowed to draw additional cards to improve their hands.
A hand with an ace valued as 11 is called "soft", meaning that the hand will not bust by taking an additional card. The value of the ace will become one to prevent the hand from exceeding Otherwise, the hand is called "hard".
Once all the players have completed their hands, it is the dealer's turn. The dealer hand will not be completed if all players have either busted or received blackjacks.
The dealer then reveals the hidden card and must hit until the cards total up to 17 points. At 17 points or higher the dealer must stay.
At most tables the dealer also hits on a "soft" 17, i. You are betting that you have a better hand than the dealer. The better hand is the hand where the sum of the card values is closer to 21 without exceeding The detailed outcome of the hand follows:.
Blackjack has over rule variations. Since the s, blackjack has been a high-profile target of advantage players , particularly card counters , who track the profile of cards that have been dealt and adapt their wagers and playing strategies accordingly.
In response, casinos have introduced counter-measures that can increase the difficulty of advantage play. Blackjack has inspired other casino games, including Spanish 21 and pontoon.
At a casino blackjack table, the dealer faces five to seven playing positions from behind a semicircular table. Between one and eight standard card decks are shuffled together.
At the beginning of each round, up to three players can place their bets in the "betting box" at each position in play. That is, there could be up to three players at each position at a table in jurisdictions that allow back betting.
The player whose bet is at the front of the betting box is deemed to have control over the position, and the dealer will consult the controlling player for playing decisions regarding the hand; the other players of that box are said to "play behind".
Any player is usually allowed to control or bet in as many boxes as desired at a single table, but it is prohibited for an individual to play on more than one table at a time or to place multiple bets within a single box.
In many U. The dealer deals cards from their left the position on the dealer's far left is often referred to as "first base" to their far right "third base".
Each box is dealt an initial hand of two cards visible to the people playing on it, and often to any other players.
The dealer's hand receives its first card face up, and in "hole card" games immediately receives its second card face down the hole card , which the dealer peeks at but does not reveal unless it makes the dealer's hand a blackjack.
Hole card games are sometimes played on tables with a small mirror or electronic sensor that is used to peek securely at the hole card.
In European casinos, "no hole card" games are prevalent; the dealer's second card is neither drawn nor consulted until the players have all played their hands.
Cards are dealt either from one or two handheld decks, from a dealer's shoe , or from a shuffling machine. Single cards are dealt to each wagered-on position clockwise from the dealer's left, followed by a single card to the dealer, followed by an additional card to each of the positions in play.
The players' initial cards may be dealt face up or face down more common in single-deck games. On their turn, players must choose whether to "hit" take a card , "stand" end their turn , "double" double wager, take a single card and finish , "split" if the two cards have the same value, separate them to make two hands or "surrender" give up a half-bet and retire from the game.
Number cards count as their natural value; the jack, queen, and king also known as "face cards" or "pictures" count as 10; aces are valued as either 1 or 11 according to the player's choice.
If the hand value exceeds 21 points, it busts, and all bets on it are immediately forfeit. After all boxes have finished playing, the dealer's hand is resolved by drawing cards until the hand busts or achieves a value of 17 or higher a dealer total of 17 including an ace valued as 11, also known as a "soft 17", must be drawn to in some games and must stand in others.
The dealer never doubles, splits, or surrenders. If the dealer busts, all remaining player hands win. If the dealer does not bust, each remaining bet wins if its hand is higher than the dealer's, and loses if it is lower.
If a player receives 21 on the 1st and 2nd card it is considered a "natural" or "blackjack" and the player is paid out immediately unless dealer also has a natural, in which case the hand ties.
In the case of a tied score, known as "push" or "standoff", bets are normally returned without adjustment; however, a blackjack beats any hand that is not a blackjack, even one with a value of Wins are paid out at , or equal to the wager, except for player blackjacks which are traditionally paid at meaning the player receives three dollars for every two bet or one-and-a-half times the wager.
Many casinos today pay blackjacks at less than at some tables; for instance, single-deck blackjack tables often pay for a blackjack instead of Blackjack games almost always provide a side bet called insurance, which may be played when dealer's upcard is an ace.
Additional side bets, such as "Dealer Match" which pays when the player's cards match the dealer's up card, are sometimes available.
After receiving an initial two cards, the player has up to four standard options: "hit", "stand", "double down", or "split".
Each option has a corresponding hand signal. Some games give the player a fifth option, "surrender". Hand signals are used to assist the " eye in the sky ", a person or video camera located above the table and sometimes concealed behind one-way glass.
The eye in the sky usually makes a video recording of the table, which helps in resolving disputes and identifying dealer mistakes, and is also used to protect the casino against dealers who steal chips or players who cheat.
The recording can further be used to identify advantage players whose activities, while legal, make them undesirable customers. In the event of a disagreement between a player's hand signals and their words, the hand signal takes precedence.
Each hand may normally "hit" as many times as desired so long as the total is not above hard On reaching 21 including soft 21 , the hand is normally required to stand; busting is an irrevocable loss and the players' wagers are immediately forfeited to the house.
After a bust or a stand, play proceeds to the next hand clockwise around the table. When the last hand has finished being played, the dealer reveals the hole card, and stands or draws further cards according to the rules of the game for dealer drawing.
When the outcome of the dealer's hand is established, any hands with bets remaining on the table are resolved usually in counterclockwise order : bets on losing hands are forfeited, the bet on a push is left on the table, and winners are paid out.
This is a side bet that the dealer has a ten-value card as the down card, giving the dealer a Blackjack. The dealer will ask for insurance bets from all players before the first player plays.
If the dealer has a ten, the insurance bet pays In most casinos, the dealer then peeks at the down card and pays or takes the insurance bet immediately.
In other casinos, the payoff waits until the end of the play. In face-down games, if you are playing more than one hand, you are allowed to look at all of your hands before deciding.
This is the only time that you are allowed to look at the second hand before playing the first hand. Using one hand, look at your hands one at a time.
Players with a blackjack may also take insurance, and in taking maximum insurance they will win an amount equal to their main wager.
Fully insuring a blackjack against blackjack is thus referred to as "taking even money". There is no difference in results between taking even money and insuring a blackjack.
Insurance bets are expected to lose money in the long run, because the dealer is likely to have a blackjack less than one-third of the time.
However the insurance outcome is strongly anti-correlated with that of the main wager, and if the player's priority is to reduce variance , they might choose to make this bet.
The insurance bet is susceptible to advantage play. It is advantageous to make an insurance bet whenever the hole card has more than a one in three chance of being a ten.
Card counting techniques can identify such situations. Note: where changes in the house edge due to changes in the rules are stated in percentage terms, the difference is usually stated here in percentage points , not percentage.
The rules of casino blackjack are generally determined by law or regulation, which establishes certain rule variations allowed at the discretion of the casino.
The rule variations of any particular game are generally posted on or near the table. You can ask the dealer if the variations are not clearly posted.
Over variations of blackjack have been documented. As with all casino games, blackjack incorporates a "house edge", a statistical advantage for the casino that is built into the game.
This house edge is primarily due to the fact that the player will lose when both the player and dealer bust. This is not true in games where blackjack pays as that rule increases the house edge by about 1.
The expected loss rate of players who deviate from basic strategy through poor play will be greater, often much greater. Surrender, for those games that allow it, is usually not permitted against a dealer blackjack; if the dealer's first card is an ace or ten, the hole card is checked to make sure there is no blackjack before surrender is offered.
This rule protocol is consequently known as "late" surrender. The alternative, "early" surrender, gives player the option to surrender before the dealer checks for blackjack, or in a no-hole-card game.
Early surrender is much more favorable to the player than late surrender. For late surrender, however, while it is tempting to opt for surrender on any hand which will probably lose, the correct strategy is to only surrender on the very worst hands, because having even a one in four chance of winning the full bet is better than losing half the bet and pushing the other half, as entailed by surrendering.
In most non-U. With no hole card, it is almost never correct basic strategy to double or split against a dealer ten or ace, since a dealer blackjack will result in the loss of the split and double bets; the only exception is with a pair of aces against a dealer 10, where it is still correct to split.
In all other cases, a stand, hit or surrender is called for. For instance, holding 11 against a dealer 10, the correct strategy is to double in a hole card game where the player knows the dealer's second card is not an ace , but to hit in a no hole card game.
The no hole card rule adds approximately 0. The "original bets only" rule variation appearing in certain no hole card games states that if the player's hand loses to a dealer blackjack, only the mandatory initial bet "original" is forfeited, and all optional bets, meaning doubles and splits, are pushed.
Each blackjack game has a basic strategy , which prescribes the optimal method of playing any hand against any dealer up-card so that the long-term house advantage the expected loss of the player is minimized.
An example of a basic strategy is shown in the table below, which applies to a game with the following specifications: . The bulk of basic strategy is common to all blackjack games, with most rule variations calling for changes in only a few situations.
For example, to use the table above on a game with the stand on soft 17 rule which favors the player, and is typically found only at higher-limit tables today only 6 cells would need to be changed: hit on 11 vs.
A, hit on 15 vs. A, stand on 17 vs. A, stand on A,7 vs. Regardless of the specific rule variations, taking insurance or "even money" is never the correct play under basic strategy.
Estimates of the house edge for blackjack games quoted by casinos and gaming regulators are generally based on the assumption that the players follow basic strategy and do not systematically change their bet size.
Most blackjack games have a house edge of between 0.